the most common plant defects and their causes

Plant structure and appearance varies throughout a plant's lifecycle. It is natural for leaves to brown and fall and it is not uncommon for fruits and flowers to vary in size and shape. However, there is a range of factors that can lead to more intensive damage and irregularities. These factors are known as plant …

an introduction to companion planting

All healthy ecosystems contain a complex system of microbes, insects, plants, and animals that interact to maintain balance and contribute to the well-being of a given space. Companion planting is a targeted effort to exploit the benefits of the relationships between specific plants to improve production vitality. More simply, companion planting is a specific type …

5 things to consider before buying hybrid seeds

Hybrid plants are a crossing between two selected parent plants achieved via controlled pollination  (see how are plants propagated). The seeds produced by this process are called F1 or F1 Hybrids. These hybrids will exhibit very specific qualities. Hybrids have quickly come to dominate the seed market. However, in spite of their increased market presence …

question: how are plants propagated?

Sexual Reproduction New plants are created via plant propagation of which there are two types: sexual and asexual. With sexual propagation, there are two sources of parental DNA resulting in the creation of a third living organism. Sexual propagation involves the floral components of the plant and is the result of the pollination of megagametophyte …

biological controls in horticulture and agriculture defined and explained

Biological control as it relates to horticulture and agriculture is the use of parasites, pathogens and predators to control pest populations and damage. These biological agents are known as natural enemies. The benefits offered by these biological agents is supported via conservation, augmentation and classical biological control tactics. Most parasites, pathogens and predators are highly …

10 common plant disease symptoms

Loss of Turgor Pressure (decrease in water pressure within plant cell walls) Causes: abiotic factors, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, insects Examples: Ralstonia solanacearum, Verticillium dahliae, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus   Enations (scaly leaflike structures that lack a vascular system) Causes: viruses Examples: Cherry raspberry leaf virus, Pea enation mosaic virus   Stunting (dwarfing or loss of vigor) Causes: …

question: what is the difference between plant resistance and plant tolerance?

Plant tolerance is the characteristic of a plant that allows a plant to avoid, tolerate or recover from attacks from insects, among other things, under conditions that would typically cause a greater amount of injury to other plants of the same species. These inheritable characteristics are what influence the ultimate degree of damage caused by …