The production of bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration is considered a form of carbon dioxide removal (CDR). The process begins by growing biomass, burning it to create energy and finally capturing and sequestering the carbon dioxide created in the process. Negative CO2 emissions are generated by combining bio-energy production [biomass fuel power stations, pulp mills and biofuel plants] with carbon capture and storage technology, allowing carbon dioxide to be captured from the atmosphere and remitted back underground.
Can be fueled by any non-fossilized material of biological origin
Encourages the use of renewable energy sources
Provides opportunities for intersectoral collaborations and partnership development
Dependent on the cost of carbon emissions and the prices must be high enough for the process to be economically viable
Unproven technology that is expensive to develop.
Can only be applied to biomass to yield “negative emission” energy
A large number of operations are necessary in order to achieve results
Ocean fertilization is an untested carbon dioxide sequestration (CDR) technique that involves dissolving nitrates or iron into the water which will encourage an increase in carbon uptake by phytoplankton. After the plankton blooms, it dies and then sinks to the ocean floor where the carbon will be stored as sedimentary rock.
Will slow the rate of ocean acidification
Does not directly change the actively changing climate, rather it slows future climate change
Will alter marine systems creating new potential problems
Ambient air capture, a form of carbon dioxide sequestration (CDR), involves building large machines that can remove carbon dioxide directly from the ambient air so that the captured CO2 can be stored elsewhere. The three steps of the air capture process are:
Contacting the air
Absorption or adsorption on a sorbent
Recovery of the sorbent
Manages emissions originating from any source
Full-scale operations are able to absorb significant amounts of carbon, e.g. emissions from 300,000 cars
Can remove far more CO2 per acre of land footprint than trees and plants
Enables the direct extraction of CO2 from the atmosphere
Requires an energy source
Large volumes of air must be processed in order to collect meaningful amounts of CO2
sources: Carbon Engineering Ltd. (n.d.). What is air capture? Retrieved from http://www.carbonengineering.com Lackner, K. S., Brennan, S., Matter, J. M., Park, A.-H. A., Wright, A., & Zwaan, B. v. (2012, June 28). The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air. Retrieved from http://www.energy.columbia.edu
Afforestation is the process of planting trees, or sowing seeds, in a barren land devoid of any trees to create a forest. The term should not be confused with reforestation, which is the process of specifically planting native trees into a forest that has decreasing numbers of trees. The increased number of trees helps to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide. Accordingly, this form of geoengineering is considered carbon dioxide removal (CDR).
Improves ground water quality
Increases the supply of timber and charcoal
Creates new wildlife habitats
Stabilizes river banks and prevents flooding
Reduces soil erosion
Real opportunity costs – the land used for afforestation will not be available for other uses, such as housing and food production
Must be applied on a global scale to have a significant impact