what are smart cities? how can smart cities improve the lives of citizens?

The advent of modern information and communication technology (ICT) continues to offer a myriad of new opportunities for advancing and improving our lives. As populations migrate to urban spaces, it becomes only logical to utilize the data produced by ICT to catalyze such improvements. Smart cities are the embodiment of such efforts as they utilize …

what is a life cycle assessment? what the different parts of a life cycle assessment?

Our planet and all of the resources she houses are part of a closed system, meaning that while energy and resources can be changed by consumption or conservation, they cannot be created or destroyed. Accordingly, every process and act of consumption has some effect on our resources and the environment in which we live.  Understanding …

a history of domestic (American) agricultural policy

Although much of the original motivation to settle America was fueled by a divine imperative to 'go forth and conquer' in the name of God, domestic farm policy also played a large role in motivating both citizens and newly arrived immigrants to settle the lands of the vast unknown. This began in the 1800s when …

a history of agricultural education in the United States

Agriculture has the backbone of communities throughout the United States since the birth of the nation. While the field has been wrought with controversy, it can also be considered innovative in many respects. Agricultural education is one of these areas... Until the mid-1800s, universities in the United States were mostly private organizations that focused on …

what are the main factors that affect co-cultural communication? what are the different co-cultural communication strategies?

The strategies and approaches to communication between the different cultures within a society is known as co-cultural communication. How these interactions manifest is directly related to the formal and formal institutions of that society as they shape the abilities of the different groups to negotiate power and relevance. During the so-called negotiation processes, some groups …

what is co-cultural communication? why is co-cultural communication important?

Within any society, there is an array of different groups with unique values and cultures that interact in varying capacities. Communication between these groups is known as co-cultural communication. How the interactions between the different cultures manifest are directly related to the formal and formal institutions of that society as they shape the abilities of …

what is social exclusion? how has society’s understanding of social exclusion evolved?

What are the consequences of being different? Basic economic theory suggests that the person/place/thing that is different would either become more valuable if there is sufficient demand, or less valuable if there is limited demand. But, how does this relationship change if that which is different is not a person/place/thing, but is a culture or …